• strict warning: Non-static method view::load() should not be called statically in /var/www/vhosts/rael.berkeley.edu/sites/all/modules/views/views.module on line 1113.
  • strict warning: Declaration of calendar_plugin_display_page::options() should be compatible with views_object::options() in /var/www/vhosts/rael.berkeley.edu/sites/all/modules/calendar/includes/calendar_plugin_display_page.inc on line 0.
  • strict warning: Declaration of calendar_plugin_display_block::options() should be compatible with views_object::options() in /var/www/vhosts/rael.berkeley.edu/sites/all/modules/calendar/includes/calendar_plugin_display_block.inc on line 0.
  • strict warning: Declaration of calendar_plugin_display_attachment::options() should be compatible with views_object::options() in /var/www/vhosts/rael.berkeley.edu/sites/all/modules/calendar/includes/calendar_plugin_display_attachment.inc on line 0.
  • strict warning: Declaration of views_handler_field::query() should be compatible with views_handler::query($group_by = false) in /var/www/vhosts/rael.berkeley.edu/sites/all/modules/views/handlers/views_handler_field.inc on line 0.
  • strict warning: Declaration of views_handler_filter::options_validate() should be compatible with views_handler::options_validate($form, &$form_state) in /var/www/vhosts/rael.berkeley.edu/sites/all/modules/views/handlers/views_handler_filter.inc on line 0.
  • strict warning: Declaration of views_handler_filter::query() should be compatible with views_handler::query($group_by = false) in /var/www/vhosts/rael.berkeley.edu/sites/all/modules/views/handlers/views_handler_filter.inc on line 0.
  • strict warning: Declaration of views_plugin_query::options_submit() should be compatible with views_plugin::options_submit($form, &$form_state) in /var/www/vhosts/rael.berkeley.edu/sites/all/modules/views/plugins/views_plugin_query.inc on line 0.
  • strict warning: Declaration of views_handler_field_comment_username::init() should be compatible with views_handler_field::init(&$view, $options) in /var/www/vhosts/rael.berkeley.edu/sites/all/modules/views/modules/comment/views_handler_field_comment_username.inc on line 0.
  • strict warning: Declaration of views_handler_filter_user_name::value_submit() should be compatible with views_handler_filter_in_operator::value_submit($form, &$form_state) in /var/www/vhosts/rael.berkeley.edu/sites/all/modules/views/modules/user/views_handler_filter_user_name.inc on line 0.
  • strict warning: Declaration of content_handler_field::element_type() should be compatible with views_handler_field::element_type($none_supported = false, $default_empty = false, $inline = false) in /var/www/vhosts/rael.berkeley.edu/sites/all/modules/cck/includes/views/handlers/content_handler_field.inc on line 0.
  • strict warning: Declaration of date_handler_field_multiple::pre_render() should be compatible with content_handler_field_multiple::pre_render($values) in /var/www/vhosts/rael.berkeley.edu/sites/all/modules/date/date/date_handler_field_multiple.inc on line 0.
  • strict warning: Declaration of image_attach_views_handler_field_attached_images::pre_render() should be compatible with views_handler_field::pre_render($values) in /var/www/vhosts/rael.berkeley.edu/sites/all/modules/image/contrib/image_attach/image_attach_views_handler_field_attached_images.inc on line 0.
  • strict warning: Declaration of views_handler_field_node_new_comments::pre_render() should be compatible with views_handler_field::pre_render($values) in /var/www/vhosts/rael.berkeley.edu/sites/all/modules/views/modules/comment/views_handler_field_node_new_comments.inc on line 0.
  • strict warning: Declaration of views_handler_field_serialized::options_validate() should be compatible with views_handler::options_validate($form, &$form_state) in /var/www/vhosts/rael.berkeley.edu/sites/all/modules/views/handlers/views_handler_field_serialized.inc on line 0.
  • strict warning: Declaration of views_handler_field_user::init() should be compatible with views_handler_field::init(&$view, $options) in /var/www/vhosts/rael.berkeley.edu/sites/all/modules/views/modules/user/views_handler_field_user.inc on line 0.
  • strict warning: Declaration of views_plugin_row::options_validate() should be compatible with views_plugin::options_validate(&$form, &$form_state) in /var/www/vhosts/rael.berkeley.edu/sites/all/modules/views/plugins/views_plugin_row.inc on line 0.
  • strict warning: Only variables should be passed by reference in /var/www/vhosts/rael.berkeley.edu/sites/all/modules/captcha/captcha.inc on line 61.
  • strict warning: Non-static method view::load() should not be called statically in /var/www/vhosts/rael.berkeley.edu/sites/all/modules/views/views.module on line 1113.

Oil, Energy Poverty and Resource Dependence in West Africa

February, 2013
Journal of Energy & Natural Resources Law

Oil, Energy Poverty and Resource Dependence in West Africa

February, 2013
Journal of Energy & Natural Resources Law

The new rush to discover and exploit hydrocarbon resources in West Africa, and particularly in the Gulf of Guinea, has raised hopes in the affected countries for new petroleum wealth and economic development. History shows, however, that major oil and gas discoveries have a very mixed record, at best, in terms of societal gains and political stability. This article therefore assesses the macroeconomic and governance implications of the recent oil and gas rush in West Africa. Clearly, sound management of the resource revenues will be crucial in national efforts to tackle poverty and promote socio-economic development. 

Renewable Energy Policy Uncertainty Stalls A Fossil Fuel-Free Future, Experts Say

February, 2013
Huffington Post

From his solar panel manufacturing facility in Marysville, Wash., Gary Shaver can see and hear passing coal trains.

"The tracks are maybe a block away, and this is not a Texas block," said Shaver, president of Silicon Energy, LLC.

To get to and from his factory, workers and clients have to cross those tracks, which may soon become heavily trafficked if proposed Pacific Northwest ports are given the go-ahead and begin exporting coal to China.

Meanwhile, China continues to ship solar panels to the U.S.

California’s Carbon Challenge: Scenarios for Achieving 80% Emissions Reduction in 2050

October, 2012
Lawrence Berkeley Lab Energy Analysis & Environmental Impacts Department

Meeting the State of California’s 2050 target of 80% lower greenhouse
gas emissions (GHG) from a 1990 baseline is a challenging goal that cannot be met
without a portfolio of measures and strategies that span both energy demand and
energy supply.

This study focuses on energy emissions with the target of reducing
energy emissions by 80% relative to 1990 energy emissions. Meeting the 2050 target
requires both a sustained commitment to aggressively develop existing technologies
as well as an aggressive and sustained policy commitment to reshape and ultimately
transform the state’s energy system.  The
2050 GHG target for California appears achievable, but requires significant changes
in the way we produce energy, deliver energy services, and utilize energy.

Our 2050  Base Case  energy system has four critical elements:

  • aggressive energy efficiency across all sectors (at technical
    potential levels for buildings and industry);
  • clean or low-carbon electricity;
  • electrification of vehicles as well as buildings and to a lesser
    extent, industry heat; and
  • low-carbon biofuels.