We explore the operations, balancing requirements, and costs of the Western Electricity Coordinating Council power system under a stringent greenhouse gas emission reduction target. We include sensitivities for technology costs and availability, fuel prices and emissions, and demand profile. Meeting an emissions target of 85% below 1990 levels is feasible across a range of assumptions, but the cost of achieving the goal and the technology mix are uncertain. Deployment of solar photovoltaics is the main driver of storage deployment: the diurnal periodicity of solar energy availability results in opportunities for daily arbitrage that storage technologies with several hours of duration are well suited to provide. Wind output exhibits seasonal variations and requires storage with a large energy subcomponent to avoid curtailment. The combination of low-cost solar technology and advanced battery technology can provide substantial savings through 2050, greatly mitigating the cost of climate change mitigation. Policy goals for storage deployment should be based on the function storage will play on the grid and therefore incorporate both the power rating and duration of the storage system. These goals should be set as part of overall portfolio development, as system flexibility needs will vary with the grid mix.
Daniel L. Sanchez is an alumni of the Energy and Resources Group and the Renewable and Appropriate Energy Laboratory at the University of California-Berkeley. He is interested in quantitative analysis to inform public policy, focusing on bioenergy and climate policy. His current research focused design, deployment, and commercialization of bioenergy with carbon capture and sequestration (BECCS) technologies. Daniel has previously held positions with the Advanced Research Projects Agency-Energy (ARPA-E), Green for All, and the California Public Utilities Commission. He holds an M.S. in Energy and Resources and a B.S.E. in Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering from the University of Pennsylvania.
Dan has been a post-doctoral fellow at the Carnegie Institution at Stanford University, and is currently a AAAS Fellow in Washington, DC. He is interested in the deployment and commercialization of technologies that significantly reduce energy-related CO2 emissions or remove CO2 from the atmosphere. Daniel’s work and engagement spans the academic, nongovernmental, and governmental sectors. He recently completed a postdoctoral research fellowship with the Carnegie Institution for Science working with Drs. Chris Field and Katharine Mach. Daniel has previously held positions with the Advanced Research Projects Agency-Energy (ARPA-E), Green for All, and the California Public Utilities Commission.
He holds a Ph.D. and M.S. from the Energy and Resources Group at the University of California-Berkeley, and a B.S.E. in Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering from the University of Pennsylvania.
Patricia graduated as an industrial and electrical engineer in 2012 from Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile (PUC). During her undergraduate studies she worked as a Linear Algebra teaching assistant for three years, performed research in Dr. Daniel Kammen’s Renewable and Appropriate Energy Laboratory (RAEL) at UC Berkeley working on the SWITCH model for the US. She also worked (funded by CONICYT) on solar energy research at the University of Arizona (undergrad thesis). Once she graduated she worked as a Linear Algebra lecturer at PUC. Later on, for over a year and a half she worked as a research assistant at UC Berkeley and at the Natural Resources Defense Council (performing SWITCH-Chile research). Her topics of interest are how to highly integrate renewable energy in the grid, long-term power system planning, stochastic load dispatch models, energy policy, and energy economics.
I am working on my MS/PhD at the Energy and Resources Group (ERG). My research is in low-carbon (low-impact) energy systems and economic development, modeling high renewable energy future scenarios, and deploying sMArt Grid (high-tech/low-cost) pilots in the rising south. I’ve worked in Chiapas (Mexico) developing regional microcredit schemes and river survey studies, designed and built ‘low-tech/high– impact’ water distribution systems for small communities in Uganda and Honduras, have used GIS models and InVest (Integrated Valuation of Environmental services and Tradeoffs) to study the hydrology of the Linthipe Basin (Malawi), and investigated linkages between hydrological variability, energy use, and agriculture in Punjab and Telangana (India).
My current work is in Nicaragua developing and building scenarios for the SWITCH model – optimizing the penetration of renewable energy into the country’s electric power system, and deploying the country’s first micro-scale demand response program (DR) through the use of ‘flexible energy toolkits’.
You can visit my website: dleonb.com, LinkedIn, and Instagram accounts